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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In the delta state urban and rural communities, a steady increase in unemployment has been observed. It is not an overstatement if we say the unemployment is the highest social problem in the country. it is one of the major societal evil which beset the citizen in their efforts to achieve their life goals. No wonder Akerele (1997) sees unemployment as situations which arise when an employable individual is actively unsuccessfully seeking for work. Unemployment according to the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) is probably the most widely feared phenomenon of our time. This phenomenon of unemployment is the tendency for able, qualified and willing citizen of any country to the international labour organization (ILO) is one who is without work, is prepare to work at present or current market wage rate and is actively searching for work. A person is also said to be unemployed when he or she is able and willing to work but does not have work. In delta state, over 65% of her labour forces are facing unemployment problem .according to Aigbokiahn (1995), unemployment is a situation in which people that are actively seeking jobs but are not able to secure one. This problem may be viewed as one of most concern to individual member of this country and was recognized since independent in 1960 till date. Unemployment can be noted, however, that existing unemployment situation creates problems, suffering, hardship and anxieties which have lasting effects on the mind of the people the beginning of this unemployment crisis could be linked to the foundation of colonial education system and the failure to reform it in the post independent period. This is as a result of the fact that present education system is still as descriptive as in colonial educational system. The unemployment provision offered by an economy can gauge its performance, becomes one of the major objective of any society is to achieve full employment. Again fully, employed labour force and an active population have high potentials to contribute to the growth and development of a national output for the promotion of the economy. The income derived as kemeration to labour complemented by social programme on food, shelter, health and education enhance the standard of living of workers. Economic development is targeting at people hence, the issue of population employment, unemployment; underdevelopment t and economic development are closely related. The existence of high unemployment in any given country becomes a source of concern to policy makers as well as the general citizenry. This is becomes high unemployment means that the economy is throwing away output by failing to put her people at work. The success of any employment strategy to a large extent depends on the appropriateness or otherwise of the program and policies that are put in place to effect on both demand and supply of labour (ILO 1996). Furthermore in this study, effort is made to look into the causes, effects of and solution to u8nemployment as a problem in delta state and it could also be described as situation whereby the labour force is temporarily, the emphasis is on the able bodied persons hence, those who are disabled are completely eliminated. With the personal observation, the researcher find out that unemployment is as a re4sult of low rate of industrialization, wide spread of illiteracy, preference of poor capital formation and poor utilization of available resources. This problem could be attributes to poor utilization of natural resource and the view of the economic planners. From the discussion above, there is no doubt that unemployment in delta state has same effect which can be identified.   1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There re numerous problems that are associated with causes, effect and solution of unemployment in delta state (Ughelli North L.G.A), there problems are as follows: i.        Illiteracy ii.       Low rate of industrialization iii.      Connection (Not having people in high places) iv.      Economic Development v.       Political Instability vi.      Tribalism vii.     Lack of Capitalism   1.3     PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main purpose of the study is to identify the various cause and effect of unemployment in Ughelli north local government area of delta state and Nigeria in general and also to find solution to the identified problems. Unemployment is a societal sickness which when not properly checked, will lead to disaster such as armed robbery and poverty to this regard, the research has undergo this study in order to find a solution and address this vital problem of unemployment so that Ughelli North L.G.A and Nigeria in general in delta state can be free the crises which are associated with unemployment.   1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS The main focus of this study is to find out the causes and effect of unemployment and to find solution that will be useful in the following question below i         To what extent does economic does economic development affect   employment? ii.       To what extent does illiteracy cause unemployment? iii.      To what extent does unemployment and individual factor causes    unemployment? iv.      To what extent does unemployment have emotional effect on the job       seekers? v.       To what extent do government policies like structural adjustment program        (SAP) contribute to the problem of unemployment in Delta State?   1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study will be very important and immensely contribute to the enlightenment of sincere seekers of truth about the poor condition of the youths in the local government been considered and this will be critically given as analysis on the implication of unemployment to the people in particular and Delta State. This contribution will help to give corrective measure to which to be under taken by corporate bodies, individual and government.   1.6     SCOPE / DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY Unemployment is a general phenomenon in Delta State and unemployment is the same every where in the country. Delta state will be considered and particular attention shall be paid to Ughelli with local government area of the state with which generalization shall be based. More all so, this study is strictly to the causes, effect and solution of unemployment in delta state, and also be noted that due to the remote geographical nature of some part of the local government and lack of easy means of transportation it has greatly restricted the scope of this study level of development, government policies and effect on the national income.   1.7     STUDY CONSTRAINTS AND LIMITATION Just like any other undertaking or task, this study is not free from time constraint, financial and transportation problems that is coupled with inadequate literature where some of the limitations the researcher encounter during the course of this study   1.8     PROFILE OF UGHELLI NORTH Ughelli north local government area has its headquarters located at Ughelli, and is one of the oil producing areas of the state with at least 45 oil wells with an area of 1440 square kilometers, it came into existence following the split of the defunct Ughelli Local Government Area into north and south. It has an estimator’s population of 200,000 spread across seven major clans namely; Ughelli, Orogun, Agbarha, Agbarho, Uwheru, Evwreni and Ogor. Their main occupation was farming and trading so that did not go to school at the earliest time, civilization came, and the local government was developed, there was small industry, schools, teaching hospital and other firms.   1.9     OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS 1        EMPOWERMENT: This is a contract between two parties one being the employer and the other being the employee. An employee is a person in the services of another under any contract or time express etc while an employer is a person or firm that employ workers. 2        UNEMPLOYMEMNT: According to oxford advance learner dictionary, unemployment means the facts of a number of people without a job or not having a job. 3        LABOUR FORCE: Oxford advance learner dictionary defined labour force as all the people who work for or who work in a company or a country. 4        UNDER – EMPLOYMENT: This means not having work that makes use of your skill and ability. It is a situation whereby the able and willing people who are physically fit, mentally balance and academically qualified are not able to get a job in a particular society.


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