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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Communication is a phenomenon that tends to be trivialized or taken for granted because everyone communicates in one way or the other all the time, but communication is not just talking or writing or gesticulating, it is much more than that. Inter-personal communication is one of the fundamental underpinnings of society. As population grows and technology evolves accordingly, so have channels of communication changed and the world is “getting smaller” or becoming a “global village”, this is not referring only to the ease of travelling but more so to the ease of communication around the globe. Unfortunately, however, just because communication is “easy” to accomplish does not mean that it is done, or that the result is an increase in understanding.   The effectiveness of communication is very central to the stability, well being, peace, progress and performance of organisation. The organization depend on effective communication to perform all their functions including planning, directing, controlling, decision making and the execution of decisions and goals.   Thus, leadership, management, operations and performance cannot take place or be achieved without communication between persons and units. Most interactions, mutual understanding and interpersonal relations take place vide communication. (Akanni, J.A. 1987:261)   The effectiveness, openness and level of communication determines largely the level of morale, job satisfaction and motivation of staff. Where communication problem exist, there would be gaps and black out about the activities problems, needs and expectations of employees and management. Thus, the task of group and organisational co-ordination and operations would be made difficult without a system of effective communication. Organizations and people are linked together by communication and they are so co-ordinated and directed to achieve purposes. Effectiveness in purpose, execution of plans and the mobilization towards goals and plan achievement, are done through communication.   Communication is therefore very important to the management of organizations. Communication is as old as the existence of man, since no one can exist without interaction with one another in different ways at close or distant ranges. In the opinion of Chapel and Reed (1984), communication is any means by which a thought is transferred from one person to another. Udall (1979) see communication as the process by which one person or a group of persons share and give information.   This view summarizes the concepts of communication as a process of giving and receiving information through previously familiar signs or symbols. It involves a transfer of opinion, attitude, beliefs, ideas, thoughts and feelings from one person or group of persons to another. In early days, it is almost the same as the use of communication in the present modern world of technology. However, they seen to be difference in methods and application in the business world.   The demand for easy communication became very high because the need to be communicated with concerning business policies and dealing became very important. Communication has proven to be a necessary key to understanding today’s complex society. Communication in the office has been described as a medium or channel concerned with creation, transmission, interaction and the use of information to achieve desired goals and objectives in any organisation.   The role of effective communication in assisting administrators to carry out their numerous tasks cannot be over emphasized. These tasks or challenges cannot be accomplished without an adequate and effective communication system put in place in the organisation. Moreover, Chester Barnard (1938), in his classic work entitled “The function of the executive observed that goals became known and useful only when they are communicated. So communication permits people to organize and co-ordinate their diverse activities to accomplish common organisational goals.   This research study will, therefore shed more light on the concepts of communication generally, and in administration in particular by examining the central role of communication, types of communication, the barriers and strategies for effective communication in some selected organisation.   1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Communication is the means by which people are linked together in an organisation to achieve a common purpose. It is the exchange of information (ideas, messages) and the transmission of meaning. In other words, communication is incomplete except when the information being passed is understood by the receiver.   No single aspect of the manager’s job can contribute to career success as much as being an effective communicator. In every organisation, there are difficulties and barriers that affect free flow of information. Most barriers and breakdown in communication tend to create on the sender, transmission of the message and the receiver. It has been observed that there is a positive relationship that exists between communication and workers performance in any organisation which will invariable lead to increase in productivity and achievement of organisational goals. In response to this, numerous studies were carried out to measure the impact of communication on workers performance.   Available data shown that the following are factors that affects organizations in terms of communication; Organisational structure, language, lack of planning, unclarified assumptions, semantic distortions, badly expressed message, loss of transmission and poor retention, poor listening and premature evaluation, destruct, threat and fear etc. Moreover Inadequate, incomplete, lack of communication upwards and downwards, create enormous problems for job performance, control and corrections.   1.3  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The objective of this study is to determine and critically examine the relationship that exists between communication and worker’s performance. In other words to examine the impact of communication on workers performance in an organisation and how it can lead to achieving organisational set objectives. Moreover the study will sought to v Identify some barriers to effective communication v Determine whether manager/leaders encourage communication in their organizations. v Evaluate the impact of communication gap in the organisation. v Find out strategies or tips put in place by different management to improve and enhance communication in an organisation.   1.4  RESEARCH QUESTIONS The general preposition of this research study is an attempt to steer the course properly and direct the researcher to a meaningful outcome. Thus certain questions were raised such as: (1)  What are the factors that hamper effective communication in the organisation? (2)  Which system/strategies do you think your management should adopt to improve and enhance communication in an organisation? (3)  To what extent has communication gap affected the organisation?   1.5  STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS The hypotheses formulated were tested using the chi-square statistics at 5% level of significance. Ho:  There is no significant relationship between communication and worker’s performance. Hi:   There is significant relationship between communication and worker’s performance.   1.6  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Managers operate in a social environment and are judged by their ability to deal with people; superiors, fellow managers, employees and persons outside their management environment. It is often difficult to find a good practical resource to complement your previous training and experience in communicating with others. The study is designed to be a resource of materials, information and guidelines to help managers become more effective communicators.   1.7  SCOPE OF STUDY This research is carried out among the managers and subordinates of Olite Manufacturing Company in Asaba.   1.8  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The research study was limited and impeded by the attitude of the respondents in giving information required for the study. Furthermore, the research was also impeded by other personal engagements and the short period within which this research work was to be submitted and time allocated for the semester academic work was too short and also a constraint to the research work.     1.9  OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS Communication: Passing of opinion, attitude, beliefs, ideas, thoughts to other people Administration: Management of public or private affairs. Organisation: Two or more individual who work together in a structured manner to achieve a specified goal. Receiver: The decoder of the message Sender: The initiator of the message Feedback: Response form the receiver Channel: Any way along which information travels through. Performance: The degree or measure of how efficient and effective an assignment is being carried out.


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