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PERCEPTION OF CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN ADULT EDUCATION FOR ADULT AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION GRADUATES IN BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA

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PERCEPTION OF CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN ADULT EDUCATION FOR ADULT AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION GRADUATES IN BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page -----------i

Approval -----------ii

Certification--------- iii

Dedication ---------- iv

Acknowledgement --------v

Table of content ---------vii

Abstract ---------- viii

Chapter One: Introduction

Background of the study-------1

Statement of Problem -------- 6

Purpose of the study -------- 7

Research Questions -------- 8

Basic assumptions -------- 9

Significance of the Study ------- 9

Scope of the Study-------- 10

Limitation of the Study-------- 11

Definition of terms -------- 12

Chapter Two: Literature review

The purpose of education-------13

Adult education in a globalised world: The role of Adult Education

in promoting learning -------- 17

Adult learners in adult and non-formal education programmes-- 24

Adult educators and their responsibilities ----- 29

Summary of review of related literature ------ 32



Chapter Three: Research Methodology

Research Design ---------35

Population of the study --------35

Sample and Sampling Techniques------35

Research Instrument ---------36

Validity of the Instrument------- -36

Reliability of the Instrument --------37

Administration of Instrument-------37

Method of Data Analysis--------37

Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Result Presentation

Analysis of Data ---------38

Discussion of Results --------48

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary -----------52

Conclusion ----------54

Recommendations--------55

References----------56

Questionnaire---------59



ABSTRACT

This study was designed to examine Perception of Career Opportunities in Adult Education for Adult and Non-formal Education graduates in Benin City, Edo State, using Oredo and Egor Local Government Areas as case study.

To achieve this purpose, the following research questions were raised in order to find solution to the problem of the study:

What are respondents’ perception on Adult and Non-formal Education?

How is the level of perception of respondents on career opportunities in Adult Education for Adult and Non-formal Education graduates?

How are respondents’ perceptions of the impact of career opportunities in Adult Education on Adult and Non-formal Education graduates?

What are the perceptions of respondents on literacy and vocational skills adult educational career opportunity for Adult and Non-formal Education graduates coupled with government’s support?

What are the perception of respondents on the utilization of the career opportunities in Adult Education by the graduates of Adult and Non-formal Education?

The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. One hundred subjects were randomly selected from the population as the sample for the study.

The instruments used for this study were a set of questionnaire and oral interview methods. Data collected for answering the research questions were analyzed using frequency count and simple percentages.

Findings from the survey revealed that majority of the respondents in Oredo and Egor Local Government Areas of Edo State have positive perception of the career opportunities in Adult Education for Adult and Non-formal Education graduates. It was also discovered that graduates of Adult and Non-formal Education utilize the career opportunities in Adult and Non-formal Education although on oral interview, respondents maintained that quite a number of these graduates lack the necessary technological tools that could make them focus on their career opportunities.

It was recommended that the graduates of Adult and Non-formal Education should be supported with the necessary technological tools by the government in order for them to fully appreciate the career opportunities in Adult Education.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The utmost aim of education is to produce a well-rounded individual that would be useful to himself and the society at large having been found worthy in learning and in character as well as a change in behavior. Adult education as a field of study promotes this aim of education as it provides the adult learners with the necessary material, human, cultural and economic skills in order for them to be useful to themselves and the society at large. Omolewa (1981) quoted the Director-General of UNESCO who holds the view that ‘… it is not the children of today who hold the present destiny of Africa in their hands, it is the adults. So it is only by establishing effective communication with the adult population, by helping them to adjust to a rapidly challenging world, that an immediate impact can be made on the urgent problems of society and essential progress be brought about.’

In 1959 the Ashby Commission was set up to determine Nigeria’s human resource needs vis-à-vis the country’s secondary and higher levels of education for a period of twenty years, 1960-1980 (Nwadiani, 2011). Thirty-four years down the ladder, Nigeria as a nation still remains one of the developing countries of the world due to social, economic and political factors like unemployment, overpopulation, illiteracy, starvation, corruption, gender inequality, etc which have become great impediments to the overall achievement of the aim of education in general and adult education in particular which is seen in most of the Third World to serve another purpose. J. T. Okedara, et al, (2001), note that whether narrowly conceived as adult literacy (functional or not), the extension of elementary schooling to the masses, or whether more widely as incorporating extension is based on nationally identified needs rather than an individual wants.

Since these social, economic and political factors still militate against the aim of education in developing countries like Nigeria, adult education graduates ought to master the content of adult education as put forward by UNESCO in The Nairobi Conference of November, 1976 which adopted a broad categorization of adult education which it defined as the entire body of organized educational processes whatever the content, level and method, whether formal or otherwise, whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities as well as in apprenticeship, whereby persons regarded as adults by the society to which they belong develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge, improve their technical or professional qualifications, or turn them in a new direction and bring about changes in their attitudes or behavior in the two-fold perspective of full personal development and participation in balanced and independent social economic and cultural development (Omolewa, 1981).

Given the above definition, it is clear that adult education is an organized educational process which equips the adult learners with the necessary apprenticeship skills, develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge, improve their technical or professional qualifications as well as turn them in a new direction in order to bring about changes in their attitudes. Therefore, it can be perceived that there are career opportunities for adult education graduates considering the fact that every society especially developing societies like Nigeria requires an organized educational processes that would impact meaningfully on the learners in order to be self-reliant. In a book entitle ‘Educational administration’ four major categories of pressure for change or adaptation in the education system can be identified; viz: political, professional, demographic and changes in related services. Adult education gainfully enables or equips adult learners in all these nationally identified needs in order for them to free their minds from factors or agents militating against the growth of a nation.

These nationally identified needs cut across all areas in adult education as a field of study. Areas such as adult basic education, community education and organizing, adult and family literacy, professional and continuing education, distance education, human resource development, workplace learning, informal education, religious education, social advocacy and action, women education, population education, extension education, etc. Adult education graduates could liaise with agencies like educational planners, policy-makers, and consultants in varied contexts as private business, government and public agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), non-profit organizations, churches and religious organizations, international organizations as well as community-based groups or initiatives in order to harness these career opportunities in the field of adult education. How are the graduates in this field of study utilizing these various avenues in harnessing these various career opportunities in adult education since most of these graduates could be limited by perception like internal and external factors as to how these career opportunities may contribute to their overall wellbeing. Super (1993), stated that both internal (personal attributes) and external (environmental and social context) factors within the transition stages will influence individuals’ career choices and decisions as well as their career/vocational behaviours.

It becomes worrisome to see that these graduates who have undergone training or completed a course in adult education still find it difficult to pick up careers in this field, hence the need to take a look at the perception of career opportunities in adult education whether due to internal or external factors because according to Lent, Brown and Hackett (2002), outcome expectations (whether educational outcome or otherwise) are described as an individual’s belief concerning the consequence or outcome from completing a specific action. Gore and Leuwerke (2000), are of the view that outcome expectations, in response to vocational behavior, help to determine career goals and interests.

Statement of the problem

Adult education as a discipline provides its graduate with various career opportunities in order for him to be useful to himself and the society. These opportunities are mostly not utilized due to the graduate’s perception of the term ‘adult education’ in a bid not to fully utilize these career opportunities the adult education graduate could be labeled ‘half educated’ because in actual practice the knowledge he acquired in the field is not brought to bear. Education as it were, provides the individual with mental ability to equip himself with the required knowledge which are linked with career opportunities in such discipline in order for that individual to stand out in the society. The problem that led to this study is to look at what is the perception of career opportunities in adult education for adult and non-formal education graduates.

Purpose of the study

The study specifically seeks to achieve the following objectives:

To find out the level of people’s awareness of Adult Education

To ascertain the level of people’s perception on the career opportunities in Adult Education for Adult and Non-formal Education graduates.

To look at people’s perception on the impact of career opportunities in Adult Education on Adult and Non-formal Education graduates.

To obtain respondents’ perceptions on the literacy and vocational skills in adult education couple with government’s support.

To see whether adult education graduates utilize the career opportunities in adult education.

Research questions

Based on the problem identified for this study the following questions were raised to guide the study:

What are respondents’ perception on Adult and Non-formal Education?

How is the level of perception of respondents on career opportunities in Adult Education for Adult and Non-formal Education graduates?

How are respondents’ perceptions of the impact of career opportunities in Adult Education on Adult and Non-formal Education graduates?

What are the perceptions of respondents on literacy and vocational skills adult educational career opportunity for Adult and Non-formal Education graduates coupled with government’s support?

What are the perception of respondents on the utilization of the career opportunities in Adult Education by the graduates of Adult and Non-formal Education?

Basic assumptions

Some basic assumptions underline this study. They are:

First, it is assumed that people’s perceptions influence career opportunities in the area under discuss.

It is also assumed that most people are not aware of the career opportunities in this programme.

It is further assumed that graduates of this programme do not utilize its career opportunities.

Significance of the study

The aim of education in whatever form, is to produce a well-rounded individual that would contribute meaningfully to the overall development of himself and the society at large.

Hence, the study will provide useful information to new students and those in this field of study on the existing career opportunities in it in order to be equipped to face the challenges after school.

The findings of the study will help to shape public perception on the career developmental choices that are available in the field so that adult education can fully gain its pride of place in the society and as a result promote the discipline.

The study to a great extent will reveal to interested educationists (researchers, policy makers and curriculum planners) the need to put in motion machineries for proper propagation of the usefulness of the discipline in a developing country like Nigeria.

Finally, the study will open up incisive and interesting areas of study in research particularly as it affects career opportunities in the discipline.

Scope of the study

The scope of the study will sample views of respondents in Benin City, Edo State. This is in order to ascertain the various perceptions of career opportunities in adult education for adult and non-formal education graduates.This study is also employed to explore the issues of whether Adult Education career opportunities can in any way give a ‘satisfactory after-school-life’ for the graduates of Adult and Non-formal Education.

Limitation of the Study

A number of constraints were encountered by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study.

The first limitation arose from human indifference towards research.

The second was lack of updated records on career opportunities in Adult Education.

The third was on inability to reach all the nooks and cranny of the areas studied.

The fourth limitation was that people are not generally interested in research in this part of the country. This was demonstrated when one confronted them with a demand bothering on acquiring information even when such information do not reveal their names or biological history.

Definition of Terms

Non-formal Education: This consists of education and training programmes which are provided by government and non-governmental organisations including private individuals outside the formal school system.

Perception: An idea, a belief or an image you have as a result of how you see or understand something.

Career: The series of jobs that a person has in a particular area of work or field.

Opportunities:Visible chances that serve as ways to success.



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